Saturday, February 8, 2020
Music as Spiritual Practice - Essay Example Many just like the song because the beat is catchy.One sad but true fact is that one in 20 U.S. adults can't read English. This also means that they may not even read a psalm. That's where the elements of music comes in. The Scripture goes "sing a joyful song unto the Lord."[Holy Bible] A disadvantage of aural music is that it excludes the deaf. Technological advancements are making music accessible and discernable to the deaf. He who has ears, let him hear. [Holy Bible, Rev 2]When should you, as a musician choose accompaniment Is a capella the best way to go Does singing a song acapella enhance the artistic value of it These are all fair questions that need to be answered. If we look at the Old Testament Psalms, for example, there really is no clear answer. There is a history involving the use of musical instruments in Jewish and Christian Services. There are bible verses that pertain to the idea of singing a joyful song unto the Lord.[Psalm 100] This lets us know that this is accep table worship. However, the use of musical instruments in church services still remains controversial. It is amazing how Salamone Rossi essentially started out as a wedding singer for the banquets of the duchess Isabella in the 16th century. Rossi's acclaim was during the Italian Renaissance. The era was a time of creative celebration. This was during a time where Jews were tolerated rather than enjoyed. They were, according to the Historical notes on the music, ostracized, at times. Rossi, however through his music gained some acceptance. The Psalms still have incomparable teaching power. Listening to the sounds of the day and how they make you feel is in itself a tool with which to speak to God. But what happens when you face some sort of disability. That is where the Psalms', (which is indeed a form of music) teaching power is turned into healing power. The Psalms teach us to see beyond aesthetic beauty. It teaches us to listen with our souls, with our minds, with our hearts and with our imaginations. After 32 years listening to music one thing holds true: Aesthetic listening is no listening at all. And what is meant by that is this. It is that one must listen "relatively". That is, to say, be the writer or be the author. Relate the song to something in your life. The lyrics of one song may say "His love endures forever."[Psalms] God calls us to seek out this passage in life. To find the aesthetic beauty that accompanies the active listening which is aimed at getting all the senses involved. One natural way to engage in listening is to remember the setting. Where were you when you first heard that song What were you doing This is how you begin. How you become the music. For deaf children who have little life experience it is important to remember that their environment and upbringing will serve as catalysts to experiencing the music. These basic questions build a foundation for developing taste as well. We have many evidences of the rhythm of life. This may be why women have biological clocks. This rhythm suggests to us to find meaning and connection with the Psalms. Look for a song in the meadow and in the hustle and bustle of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Core Values Essay Inspired by the charism of Saint Marcellin Champagnat, Notre Dame of Marbel University anchors its faith and life on the following core values as foundational qualities with which the Marist Brothers, Mission Partners, and students approach the entire educational process and academic atmosphere of the University: Family Spirit, Marian, Love of Work, Preference for the Least Favored, Quality Education, Integrity of Creation, and Culture-sensitivity. Family Spirit St. Marcellin ChampagnatÃ¢â¬â¢s great desire and legacy was in the style of relationship he encouraged between teachers and students- a relationship premised on love and expressed in a style which Marcellin called Ã¢â¬Å"family spirit. Ã¢â¬ Akin to the characteristic of a good family are: a warmth of welcome, acceptance, belongingness and authentic concern which should prevail where everyone has a sense of being valued and believed in, regardless of their role or their social standing. Marian Mary is for us the perfect model of the Marist Educator, as she was for Marcellin. As a woman, a layperson and JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ first follower, she is our inspiration in living out personal faith and virtue of simplicity. As an educator of Jesus at Nazareth, she inspires our pedagogical approach. The Marian aspect of our spirituality is expressed above all, in our identifying with her attitudes towards others and to God. She is in our midst, a symbol of unity and mission, a witness to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s solidarity with people in their needs and sufferings. Love of Work Love of work implies a cheerful and careful preparation of all the things one does. It values the dignity of work as a powerful means of self-fulfillment, of giving purpose and meaning to life, and of contributing to the general economics, social and cultural well-being. It is manifested through a deep sense of personal planning and motivation that shows itself in the good use of time, talent and initiative. Preference for the Least Favored Preference for the least favored is to be with those who are excluded from the mainstream of society, and those whose material poverty leads to deprivation in relation to health, family life, schooling, and educational values. With the emergence of social and cultural challenges confronting the world, preference to the least favored means being concerned toward the youth who are affected by the social, political, and cultural problems of the society. Quality Education A Marist school is a center of learning, of life and of evangelizing. It leads students Ã¢â¬Å"to learn, to know, to be competent, to live together and most especially, to grow as persons.Ã¢â¬ Quality education is characterized as holistic where students are progressively initiated into their life-long challenge of harmonizing faith, culture and life. It provides educational programmes, curriculum contents, and teaching methods that meet the aspirations of students, parents and the community with regard to subject choices, career possibilities and educational needs of the community. It gives emphasis to educating students by teaching them through good examples and inculcating in them the importance of the craft of teaching and its support systems. Integrity of Creation Ã¢â¬Å"Respect for the value of lifeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"care for the mother earthÃ¢â¬ are two major themes in valuing the integrity of creation. It upholds life-giving values and promotes stewardship of the earth. Culture Sensitivity Culture must be accepted as the gift of every people, the expression of their dignity, liberty and creativity, and the testimony of their unique place in the history of humanity. Culture sensitivity means openness and respect to the different culture of peoples. It promotes dialogue as a way of enhancing unity in diversity. On the individual level, it is a communication between two persons with different views, different values and traditions, to learn from each other in order for them to change and grow. Culture sensitivity as a value promotes respect for the tri-people of Mindanao, develops programs for inter-faith dialogue and upholds advocacy on issues as a result of the emerging culture of the global world.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Comparing the Tragedies of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman The tragedies Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman have strikingly different plots and characters; however, each play shares common elements in its resolution. The events in the playsÃ¢â¬â¢ closings derive from a tragic flaw possessed by the protagonist in each play. The downfall of each protagonist is caused by his inability to effectively cope with his tragic flaw. The various similarities in the closing of each play include elements of the plot, the reflection of other characters on the misfortune of the tragic hero, and expression of important themes through the dialogue of the characters. The protagonists of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman each possess a tragic flaw that ultimately induces their demise. Hamlet is characterized as a hesitant hero. He thoroughly contemplates his options instead of taking action; however, when he does not have the time to consider his alternatives, he acts rashly and impulsively. For example, he did not kill Claudius when he was presented with the opportunity in Act III scene iii. OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢ tragic flaw was his excessive pride, or hubris. He believed that he was flawless and thus maintained the false notion that he was also infallible. Willy Loman was plagued by his enchantment with the ephemeral promises of the American Dream. There are various similarities and differences among the events that occur in the resolutions of the three tragedies, including physical destruction of the protagonist, assumption of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s former position by a rival, and suffering caused by disillusionment. The three tragic heroes Hamlet, Oedipus, and Willy Loman are subjected to various forms of physical destruction. Hamlet is slain in a fencing match by a poisoned foil, Oedipus mutilates himself and is exiled from Thebes, and Willy Loman commits suicide by intentionally crashing his car. Another common thread in the resolutions of all three tragedies is that a rival of the tragic hero assumes the responsibilities of the protagonist following his demise. Creon Ã¢â¬â the man secretly covetous of royal power Ã¢â¬â becomes the leader of Thebes after Oedipus falls from his position of authority. Fortinbras assumes a position of leadership in Denmark after the death of Claudius and his successors. In Death of a Salesman... ...ine. And when they start not smiling back Ã¢â¬â thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an earthquake. And then you get yourself a couple of spots on your hat and youÃ¢â¬â¢re finishedÃ¢â¬ (138). With these words, Charley attributes WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s despair to the hardships of his profession. BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s comment that his father Ã¢â¬Å"never knew who he wasÃ¢â¬ (138) insinuates that people should strive to discover their true place in life. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s dissatisfaction with his life was a result of his vain attempt to be someone that he was not. The three tragedies Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman have similar resolutions despite their diverse storylines. In each play, the tragic hero suffers from great misfortune that ultimately leads to his downfall. Various plot elements in the closing related to the destruction of the protagonist are shared among the three tragedies. The closing of each play reveals thoughts and feelings of characters regarding the demise of the tragic hero. Also, major themes are expressed through the discussion and action of the characters. Most importantly, the conclusion of each tragedy not only evokes feelings of sympathy but also teaches the audience an important lesson about the human condition.
Monday, January 13, 2020
COMPANY PROFILE Marks and Spencer Group plc REFERENCE CODE: DFE67A38-E021-448F-BC58-3944E618713F PUBLICATION DATE: 12 May 2012 www. marketline. com COPYRIGHT MARKETLINE. THIS CONTENT IS A LICENSED PRODUCT AND IS NOT TO BE PHOTOCOPIED OR DISTRIBUTED. Marks and Spencer Group plc TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Company OverviewÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 Key FactsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Business DescriptionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 Histor yÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 Key EmployeesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 9 Key Employee BiographiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 10 Major Products and ServicesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . 6 Revenue AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 17 SWOT AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 18 Top CompetitorsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 25 Company ViewÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 26 Locations an d SubsidiariesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 29Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 2 Marks and Spencer Group plc Company Overview COMPANY OVERVIEW Marks and Spencer Group (M&S or Ã¢â¬Å"the companyÃ¢â¬ ) is one of the leading retailers of clothing, foods and homeware in the UK. The company operates in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. It is headquar tered in London, the UK and employs 78,169 people. The company recorded revenues of ? 9,740. 3 million (approximately $15,158. 8 million) in the financial year ended April 2011 (FY2011)*, an increase of 2. 1% over FY2010. The operating profit of M&S was ? 836. million (approximately $1,302. 5 million) in FY2011, a decrease of 1. 8% compared to FY2010. The net profit was ? 612 million (approximately $952. 5 million) in FY2011, an increase of 1 6. 3% over FY2010. *The financial year ended April 2, 2011 was a 52-week period whereas the financial year ended April 3, 2010 was a 53-week period. KEY FACTS Head Office Marks and Spencer Group plc Waterside House 35 Nor th Wharf Road London W2 1NW GBR Phone 44 20 7935 4422 Fax Web Address http://www. marksandspencer. com Revenue / turnover 9,740. 3 (GBP Mn) Financial Year End April Employees 78,169 London TickerMKS Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 3 Marks and Spencer Group plc Business Description BUSINESS DESCRIPTION M&S is the holding company of the Marks & Spencer Group of companies. The company is one of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading retailers, with more than 21 million people visiting its stores each week. M&S offers clothing and home products, as well as foods, sourced from about 2,000 suppliers globally. It operates through both wholly owned stores and franchise stores. As of FY2011, the company operated 703 stores in the UK. M&S operates over 361 owned and franch ised stores in over 42 territories.Though the company primarily repor ts its revenues in terms of geographic segments (UK and international), its operations can be categorized under two divisions: food and general merchandise. The food division concentrates on four main areas: fresh, natural, healthy food; special celebration products; authentic ready meal ranges; and exceptional ever yday food such as Ã¢â¬Å"OakhamÃ¢â¬ chicken. It operates a chain of 163 Simply Food owned stores and 202 Simply Food franchise stores in high streets, motorway service stations, railway stations and air por ts in the UK.The general merchandise division of the company is categorized into two segments: clothing and home. The clothing segment offers women's wear, men's wear, lingerie, children's wear, and accessories and footwear. Some of the prominent brands offered by this segment include Autograph, Limited Collection, Collezione, Blue Harbour, Girls Boutique, Per Una, Ceriso, Adored, and Truly you. The home segment offers homeware and home accessories, kitchen and tableware, lighting, and furniture products. In addition to selling products through regular stores, the segment also offers catalogue services.M offers its products and services online as well as through flagship stores, high street stores, retail park stores, M outlets, Simply Food stores, and Simply Food franchised stores. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 4 Marks and Spencer Group plc History HISTORY M was founded in 1884 as a stall in an open market in Leeds, the UK. Then known as Marks' Penny Bazaar, it was the household goods, haberdasher y, toy, and sheet-music business of Michael Marks, a Jewish refugee from Poland. In 1894, he took Thomas Spencer as a business par tner.In 1903, M&S was registered as a private limited company. Although a clothing design depar tment had first been set up in 1938, it was not until after the Second World War that it became fully developed under a leading designer . In 1973, the company entered Canada, and bought Peoples Depar tment Stores and D'Allaird's, a national women's wear retailer, both of which it later sold. The company also had direct retailing investments in Canada. It tried to move south of the border in 1988 with the purchase of Brooks Brothers, but the US operation never took off as the company had hoped.Five franchised stores were closed down in Turkey in 1999 when the franchise par tner Turk Petrol Holding couldn't meet its bank obligations and collapsed. Later in the year, Marks and Spencer Canada, after 25 years of business, closed its 38 stores. The company sold its US clothing chain Brooks Brothers for $225 million in 2001. In 2003, M&S announced the launch of its Ã¢â¬Å"&moreÃ¢â¬ credit card. Alongside this, Marks & Spencer Financial Services was re-branded Ã¢â¬Å"Marks & Spencer Money. Ã¢â¬ In 2004, M&S completed the sale of Marks & Spencer Retail Financial Services Holdings (M&S Money) to HSBC.During the course o f 2005, the company opened 31 Simply Food stores as well as closed the Lifestore project in the UK. M&S expanded the Ã¢â¬Å"Simply FoodÃ¢â¬ format with the acquisition of 28 stores on a leasehold basis from Iceland Foods for a consideration of ? 38 million (approximately $76. 3 million) in 2006. In the same year, M&S sold Kings Super Markets, its only non-M&S branded business to a US investor group consisting of Angelo, Gordon & Co, MTN Capital Par tners and Mr. Bruce Weitz for $61. 5 million in cash.In 2007, M&S and two of its long-term suppliers decided to star t the development of M&S' first Ã¢â¬Å"eco-factoriesÃ¢â¬ , pioneering innovative methods of sustainable manufacturing. One factor y in Sri Lanka would make lingerie and two factories in Nor th Wales would manufacture furniture upholster y. In the same year, the company launched its own branded LCD widescreen TVs. This range was in addition to the existing collection of Sony TVs currently available at M. Fur ther in the year, M launched school wear made from recycled plastic bottles.The company's first standalone home store in Lisburn, Nor thern Ireland was launched in 2007. In the same year, M&S launched Big & Tall, an exclusive online men's wear offering more than 450 items online ranging from tailoring to knitwear to casual shir ts and trousers. Also in 2007, M reduced saturated fat level as much as 82% in more than 500 company's products. The company reduced saturated fat levels in products including sandwiches, ready meals, crisps and savor y snacks. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 5 Marks and Spencer Group plc HistoryTowards the end of 2007, a new Made to Measure shir ts ser vice was launched by M&S, which allowed customers to design a tailor-made shir t within 21 days. The company added new products to its men's wear por tfolio in FY2008. M also launched climate control underwear featuring temperature regulating technology developed by NASA, expanded Collezione brand collec tion by introducing new shoes, wool and cashmere mix trousers. M reinvigorated its Blue Harbour brand to attract 35 to 44 year old men. Also in FY2008, the company star ted to freeze its ready meals for international sale and launched a range of 70 lines in eight countries.Later, the company also launched a 25-piece capsule collection called GD25 from Per Una. In 2008, M removed ar tificial colors and flavorings from its entire food and soft drinks range. In the same year, the company improved the quantity of space in a number of major out of towns and city centre stores through store extensions and also added 35 stores to its Simply Food por tfolio, including 25 BP franchised stores. A new flagship store in new Westfield Centre at White City, West London was opened at the end of 2008.To fur ther progress in Asian markets, the company opened its first 38,000 square feet store in Shanghai. M then entered into a par tnership with Scottish and Southern Energy, as per which M Energy wou ld supply electricity and gas to domestic customers and reward them with M store vouchers for helping the environment by reducing their energy usage. M announced plans to close 10 of its Simply Food stores in 2009. The company opened Food to Go outlets in Hong Kong in the same year. Also in 2009, M announced plans to enter new categories in the Indian market, with the launch of luggage and footwear for men.The company introduced a Ramadan and Eid fashion collection in all the 13 stores throughout the Middle East in the UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait and Oman in 2009. Fur ther in the year, M launched personalized greetings cards business online. The company also announced to open its second mainland store in Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province in southern China. M also launched a beer and cider range to complement its wine selection. M launched a revamped version of its website in 2009, the first major update since 2007.Fur thermore, in 2009, the company began to offer its onli ne international deliver y service to 73 more countries as par t of a drive to grow annual sales of M Direct. The company began its offering within the homeware sector in 2009. M announced plans to open a store in Marbella, Spain by the end of 2009. In the same year, M and India-based Reliance Retail planned to open approximately 50 stores in India in the following five years under the banner of their joint venture company Marks & Spencer Reliance India. Later in the year, the company outlined plans to cut costs by ? 50 million (about $150 million) by optimizing its supply chain and IT systems. M also announced plans to open a new store at the Swords Pavilions shopping center in the Dublin Airpor t, Ireland, in 2009. The company opened its new 22,000 square feet store at Morpeth's Sanderson Arcade in the same year. M&S decided to launch Ã¢â¬Å"Simply FoodÃ¢â¬ in Western Europe. Fur ther in 2009, the company announced plans to sell a selected range of around 400 branded grocery an d household products in all of its UK stores, following a 16-month trial in its stores in the Nor th East and South East of England.In 2010, M&S launched a new Home Energy Service division that would offer customers a suite of energy efficiency products and services. Building on the success of M&S Energy, which was servicing Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 6 Marks and Spencer Group plc History over 125,000 homes, the company would roll-out a number of new products including bespoke energy advice, renewable energy solutions such as solar panels and heat pumps, and energy efficient heating solutions.In the same year, M&S announced a program to be the world's most sustainable retailer by 2015, launching 80 major new commitments under M' eco and ethical plan, Plan A. The new commitments will mean that the company ensures all M&S products become Ã¢â¬ËPlan A products' with at least one sustainable quality. This program will also enable the company's 2,000 suppliers to a dopt Plan A best practice and encourage M customers and employees to live Ã¢â¬Ëgreener' lifestyles. Fur ther in 2010, M launched a new version of www. marksandspencer. om designed specifically for use on mobile phones and mobile devicesÃ¢â¬âthe first mobile site from a major UK high street retailer. Through this, the company aims to expand its multi-channel offering. During the same year, M launched England Football team suit exclusively in M stores, to take advantage of the football World cup spending. The company opened its new 1. 1 million square feet distribution centre at ProLogis Park Bradford in the UK in 2010. This warehouse in the UK will serve all the company's stores with furniture products and store equipment.Later in 2010, M&S launched a range of Solar PV and Solar Thermal water heating solutions. Fur thering the sustainability initiatives, the company also announced that it will use polyester made from recycled PET drinks bottles instead of virgin polymer to make more than 300 million clothing care labels a year. Towards the end of 2010, M&S announced plans to move into rail distribution to reduce its carbon footprint. More than 300,000 general merchandise products per week would move from road to rail distribution. The company also opened a new shopping center in Vilnius, Lithuania at the end of year.In April 2011, M&S opened its greenest ever store at Ecclesall Road in Sheffield. This is the first store of a number of new Sustainable Learning stores planned by the company as par t of its drive to become the world's most sustainable major retailer by 2015. The company opened 20 stores in the UK during FY2011, including 17 Simply Foods. In international, M opened 49 new stores and closed 15 stores. During the same period, the company entered the Egyptian market with a 28,000 square feet store in the Dandy Mega Mall in Cairo.The company, in July 2011, launched a new iPad application for its investors. This application will provide investors w ith latest M financial news. In the following month, M signed a traceability deal with Historic Futures. As per the deal, Historic Futures will provide the company full traceability on ever y single clothing and home product it sells. M is the first major retailer to commit to full traceability for non-food products. In September 2011, M opened a new store at Westfield, Stratford City with the latest Ã¢â¬ËOnly at Your M' innovations and customer experiences.In the following month, M&S launched its new French website, http://www. marksandspencer. fr/, marking its first international transactional website. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 7 Marks and Spencer Group plc History The company, in November 2011, opened its new flagship store at 100 Avenue des Champs-elysees in Paris. M&S, in February 2012, launched its outlet format on its website at www. marksandspencer. com/outlet. M&S Outlet will permanently offer a selection of more than 1,300 quality M&S clothing prod ucts with up to 40% off the regular high street and online prices.In the same month, the company recalled four products (Crispy Prawn Wonton, Crispy Vegetable Balls, Prawn Baguette Toast, and Prawn Siu Mai Selection) from its Chinese range due to mistake in Ã¢â¬Ëuse byÃ¢â¬â¢ date. In March 2012, the company, announced plans to launch a new website for its Irish customers, http://www. marksandspencer. ie/. In April 2012, M&S announced that it will accept secondhand clothes at UK outlets in order to recycle into other fabrics or reuse overseas by the Oxfam charity in an aim to cut waste. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 8 Marks and Spencer Group plcKey Employees KEY EMPLOYEES Name Job Title Board Marc Bolland Chief Executive Officer Executive Board 975000 GBP Alan Stewar t Chief Finance Officer Executive Board 550000 GBP Kate Bostock Executive Director, General Merchandise Executive Board 590000 GBP John Dixon Executive Director, Food Executive Board 540000 GBP Ste ven Sharp Executive Director, Marketing Executive Board 655000 GBP Laura Wade-Gery Executive Director, Multi-channel E-commerce Executive Board Amanda Mellor Group Secretar y and Head of Corporate Governance Executive Board Rober t Swannell Chairman of the BoardNon Executive Board Vindi Banga Director Non Executive Board Miranda Cur tis Director Non Executive Board Jeremy Darroch Director Non Executive Board 85000 GBP Steven Holliday Director Non Executive Board 85000 GBP Mar tha Lane Fox Director Non Executive Board 70000 GBP Jan du Plessis Director Non Executive Board 70000 GBP Clem Constantine Director, Proper ty Senior Management Tanith Dodge Director, Human Resources Senior Management Dominic Fr y Director, Communications and Investor Relations Senior Management Jan Heere Director, International Senior Management Nayna McIntoshDirector, Store Marketing and Design Senior Management Steve Rowe Director, Retail Senior Management Darrell Stein Director, Information Technology and L ogistics Senior Management Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Compensation 450000 GBP Page 9 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee Biographies KEY EMPLOYEE BIOGRAPHIES Marc Bolland Board: Executive Board Job Title: Chief Executive Officer Since: 2010 Mr. Bolland has been the Chief Executive Officer at Marks and Spencer Group since 2010. Previously, he was the Chief Executive Officer at Morrisons Supermarkets from 2006 to 2010.Prior to this, Mr. Bolland worked at Heineken for 20 years in various management roles, including Executive Board member and Chief Operating Officer, and responsibility for operations and business development in the US, France, Italy, Spain, the Caribbean and Latin America. He also ser ves as a Director at Manpower. Alan Stewart Board: Executive Board Job Title: Chief Finance Officer Since: 2010 Mr. Stewar t has been the Chief Finance Officer at Marks and Spencer Group since 2010. Before joining the company, he was the Chief Financial Officer at AWA S, an aircraft leasing company. Mr.Stewar t spent 10 years at HSBC Investment Bank before joining Thomas Cook in 1996, where he held various senior roles, including Chief Executive at Thomas Cook UK. Mr. Stewar t joined WH Smith in 2005 as Group Finance Director. He also ser ved as a Non Executive Director at Games Workshop Group. Kate Bostock Board: Executive Board Job Title: Executive Director, General Merchandise Ms. Bostock is the Executive Director of General Merchandise at Marks and Spencer Group. She joined the company in 2004. Previously, Ms. Bostock was the Product Director for Childrenswear at Next from 1994.She also ser ved as the Product Director for the George brand covering all areas of clothing and footwear at Asda. John Dixon Board: Executive Board Job Title: Executive Director, Food Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 10 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee Biographies Since: 2009 Mr. Dixon has been the Executive Director of Food at Marks and Spence r Group since 2009. He joined the company as a Store Management Trainee. Mr. Dixon held various senior roles at the company for over 20 years, including Executive Assistant, Chief Executive, and Director of Home and M&S Direct.Steven Sharp Board: Executive Board Job Title: Executive Director, Marketing Mr. Sharp is the Executive Director of Marketing at Marks and Spencer Group. He joined the company in 2004. Previously, Mr. Shar p served as the Marketing Director at Asda, the Bur ton Group, Booker, and Arcadia Group. Currently, he is a Non Executive Director at Adnams. Laura Wade-Gery Board: Executive Board Job Title: Executive Director, Multi-channel E-commerce Since: 2011 Ms. Wade-Gery has been the Executive Director of Multi-channel E-commerce at Marks and Spencer Group since 2011.Prior to this, she worked at Tesco and held a variety of senior roles, including Chief Executive Officer of Tesco. com and Tesco Direct. Ms. Wade-Ger y also held various roles at Gemini Consulting and K leinwor t Benson. She has also been a Non Executive Director at Trinity Mirror since 2006. Amanda Mellor Board: Executive Board Job Title: Group Secretary and Head of Corporate Governance Ms. Mellor is the Group Secretary and Head of Cor porate Governance at Marks and Spencer Group. She joined the company in 2004 as the Head of Investor Relations. Ms.Mellor spent her early career in investment management at James Capel before becoming a Director within its Corporate Finance team. She then served at Rober t Fleming, Investment Banking prior to joining The Bur ton Group as the Director of Cor porate Relations and Investor Relations. Robert Swannell Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Chairman of the Board Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 11 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee Biographies Since: 2011 Mr. Swannell has been the Chairman of the Board at Marks and Spencer Group since 2011.He joined the company in 2010 as a Non Executive Director. Prior to this, Mr. S wannell was a Senior Independent Director at The British Land Company, and 3i Group. He spent over 30 years in investment banking at Schroders/Citigroup. Mr. Swannell was previously the Vice Chairman at Citi Europe and Co-Chairman at Citi's European Investment Bank. Vindi Banga Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2011 Mr. Banga has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since 2011. He is currently a Par tner at Clayton Dubilier & Rice, a private equity investment firm. Prior to this, Mr.Banga spent 33 years at Unilever, where he held several senior positions, including President of the Global Foods, Home and Personal Care businesses, and was a member of the Unilever Executive Board. He also serves as a Non Executive Director at Thomson Reuters and Maruti Suzuki India. Miranda Curtis Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2012 Ms. Cur tis has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since February 2012. She is currently the Chairman at Waterston es, and a Non Executive Director at Liber ty Global. Ms. Cur tis has also been a Non Executive Director at National Express Group since 2008.She also serves on the Boards of the Institute for Government, the Royal Shakespeare Company, and Camfed (the leading African girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ education charity). Jeremy Darroch Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2006 Mr. Darroch has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since 2006. He also ser ves as the Chief Executive at British Sky Broadcasting. Previously, Mr. Darroch ser ved as the Chief Financial Officer at British Sky Broadcasting. Prior to this, he was the Group Finance Director and Retail Finance Director at Dixons Retail (formerly DSG International). Marks and Spencer Group plc MarketLine Page 12 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee Biographies Steven Holliday Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2004 Mr. Holliday has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since 2004. He is the Group Chie f Executive Officer at National Grid. Prior to that, Mr. Holliday served as the Director of UK and Europe and was responsible for the UK Electricity and Gas businesses. He is also the Chairman of the UK Business Council for Sustainable Energy. Prior to joining National Grid, Mr. Holliday was an Executive Director at British Borneo Oil and Gas.Previously, he held several senior positions at Exxon Group. Martha Lane Fox Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2007 Ms. Fox has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since 2007. She is the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s Digital Champion, the Chairman of Race Online 2012, and a Non Executive Director at Channel 4 Television. Ms. Fox is founder and Chairman of Lucky Voice, and of her own grant-giving foundation, Antigone. She was co-founder of lastminute. com. Jan du Plessis Board: Non Executive Board Job Title: Director Since: 2008 Mr. du Plessis has been a Director at Marks and Spencer Group since 2008.He is the Chairman at Rio Tinto. Pre viously, Mr. du Plessis was the Chairman at British American Tobacco and a Non Executive Director at Lloyds Banking Group. He also ser ved as the Chairman at RHM from 2005 to 2007. Mr. du Plessis was previously the Group Finance Director at Richemont, a position he held until 2004. Clem Constantine Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Proper ty Mr. Constantine is the Director, Proper ty at Marks and Spencer Group. He joined the company in 2006. Mr. Constantine was appointed the Group Proper ty and Retail Planning Director at Arcadia Group in 1999.He was appointed to his first finance directorship in 1993, for the IS brand at the Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 13 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee Biographies Bur ton Group, and moved through several other finance directorships with variable responsibilities including systems and retail. Mr. Constantine was trained as a Char tered Accountant at Stoy Hayward, and joined Debenhams in 1989 as a Financial Analyst. Tanith Dodge Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Human Resources Since: 2008 Ms. Dodge has been the Director, Human Resources at Marks and Spencer Group since 2008.She was formerly the Group Human Resources Director at WH Smith since 2003. At WH Smith, Ms. Dodge was also responsible for Public Relations, Communications and Post Office Operations. Prior to this, she was the Senior Vice President Human Resources for Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) at InterContinental Hotels Group. Ms. Dodge also served as the Human Resources Director at Diageo's two business divisions. She was also the International Human Resources Manager at Prudential Corporation. Dominic Fry Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Communications and Investor RelationsMr. Fry is the Director, Communications and Investor Relations at Marks and Spencer Group. He joined the company in 2009. Prior to this, Mr. Fr y ser ved at Tulchan Communications. In 1996, he was appointed the Communicat ions Director at J Sainsbury and ser ved in the same role at ScottishPower from 2000 to 2005. In 1989, Mr. Fr y became the Communications Director at AT&T in the UK before moving from there to head up communications at the Channel Tunnel in the mid '90s. He star ted his career in 1982 working in PR consultancy at Traverse-Healy & Regester and then Charles Barker.Jan Heere Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, International Since: 2011 Mr. Heere has been the Director, International at Marks and Spencer Group since 2011. He joined Inditex in 2002 where he held a several international roles, most recently as General Manager for Inditex Russia. During 2000Ã¢â¬â02, Mr. Heere held various senior management roles at Zara, Groupo Inmobiliario Lupaco, and Charanga. He began his career at Manpower in Spain in 1997. Nayna McIntosh Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 14 Marks and Spencer Group plc Key Employee BiographiesBoard: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Stor e Marketing and Design Ms. McIntosh is the Director, Store Marketing and Design at Marks and Spencer Group. She joined the company in 2005. Prior to this, Ms. McIntosh was par t of the Management Team that set up the per una brand in 2001. Previously, she served as the Sales and Marketing Director for the George brand at Asda stores. Before joining George, Ms. McIntosh was at Next for four years as a Divisional Executive for the South of England. Steve Rowe Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Retail Since: 2008 Mr.Rowe has been the Director, Retail at Marks and Spencer Group since 2008. He joined the company in 1989 and held a variety of positions in store management, having previously worked at Topshop as a Store Manager. Mr. Rowe joined Head Office in 1992 as a Merchandiser for Menswear. In 1998, he was promoted to Category Manager in the Furniture Depar tment. In 2001, Mr. Rowe led the team developing the Home Growth Strategy, working with McKinsey Consultants, and beca me Head of Home categories in 2003. He was promoted to the Director of Home a year later in 2004. From 2004 to 2008, Mr.Rowe was also responsible for Beauty and New Business Development. Darrell Stein Board: Senior Management Job Title: Director, Information Technology and Logistics Mr. Stein is the Director, Information Technology and Logistics at Marks and Spencer Group. He has been working in IT for 17 years star ting his career at the company in 1990. Mr. Stein re-joined M in 2006 as the IT Director. From 2001 to 2006, he ser ved at Vodafone, becoming IT Director for Vodafone UK in 2004. Prior to this, Mr. Stein was Vodafone's UK Network Director and Global IT Strategy and Architecture Director.From 1996 to 2001, he ser ved at Ernst & Young, leading a number of major IT and Change Programmes in the financial services, retail and utility sectors. In 1994, Mr. Stein joined Mars as a Project Manager. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 15 Marks and Spencer Group plc Ma jor Products and Services MAJOR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES M&S is one of the leading retailers of clothing, foods and homeware in the UK. The company's key products and services include the following: Products: Women's wear Men's wear Lingerie Children's wear Footwear Food and grocery items Homeware and home accessoriesKitchen and tableware Lighting Furniture products Services: Credit cards Car, home, travel, and pet insurance Personal loans Brands: Autograph Limited Collection Collezione Blue Harbour Girls Boutique Per Una Ceriso Adored Truly you Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 16 Marks and Spencer Group plc Revenue Analysis REVENUE ANALYSIS Overview The company recorded revenues of ? 9,740. 3 million (approximately $15,158. 8 million) in FY2011, an increase of 2. 1% over FY2010. For FY2011, the UK, the company's largest geographic market, accounted for 89. 7% of the total revenues.M generates revenues through two business divisions: food (51. 5%% of the total revenues in FY2011), and general merchandise (48. 5%). Revenues by division* During FY2011, the food division recorded revenues of ? 4,499. 4 million (approximately $7,002. 4 million), an increase of 1. 9% over FY2010. The general merchandise division recorded revenues of ? 4,233. 6 million (approximately $6,588. 8 million) in FY2011, an increase of 2% over FY2010. *The revenue breakdown by division is only for the revenues from the UK market. Revenues by geography The UK, M' largest geographical market, accounted for 89. % of the total revenues in FY2011. Revenues from the UK reached ? 8,733 million (approximately $13,591. 2 million) in FY2011, an increase of 1. 9% over FY2010. International operations accounted for 10. 3% of the total revenues in FY2011. Revenues from international operations reached ? 1,007. 3 million (approximately $1,567. 7 million) in FY2011, an increase of 4% over FY2010. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 17 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis SWO T ANALYSIS M&S is one of the leading retailers of clothing, foods and homeware in the UK.The company has expanded its food product offering significantly in the recent years. New products launches, focus on expanding healthy products, promotions, and competitive prices are all helping the company attract customers in a highly competitive market. However, surge in shoplifting could negatively impact the cost structure for M&S. Strengths Weaknesses Expanding food offering Strong market position in the clothing segment Geographical expansion to increase the addressable market and reduce vulnerability to mature UK market M&S etched a highly effective CSR strategy M&S legacy stores and systems are a ompetitive disadvantage Declining general merchandise division sales due to inadequate stocking Opportunities Threats Online channel continues to boom and will enable M&S to boost revenues Focus on China and India can lead to expansion in two of the fastest growing markets Surge in shopliftin g losses costs the retailers and customers Weak consumer spending in the UK Rising labor cost in the UK Strengths Expanded food offering The company has expanded its food product offering significantly in the recent years. In 2009, M&S consistently highlighted it is cheaper than Waitrose on a basket of 1,200 items by about 2%.The company, in 2009, decided to invest in its margins in order to provide its customers better value. As a result of this, M&S saw improved perceptions of value by its customers. The company, in FY2011, launched around 1,800 new products in food and positioned itself as the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading high quality food retailer. The key product launches of the company include Taste Italia, and Made Without Wheat range of gluten-free bread and cakes, With the success of Made Without Wheat product range, the company launched gluten-free sandwiches, sausages, stuffing, and crisp bakes.As of FY2011, the company offered 125 gluten-free products. M&S also became the UKÃ¢â¬ â¢s second largest favorite health food brand with the launch of its Simply Fuller Longer range which encourages customers to manage their weight with a menu plan. The gross margin of food division increased by 20 basis points to Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 18 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis 30. 8% in FY2011. This was mainly driven by better management of promotions and waste. Fur ther, in the four th quar ter of FY2012 ended March 2012, M&S launched 500 new products in the food division.The sales in this quar ter increased by 3. 1%, The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s promotions such as roast dinner for ? 5 ($7. 8), Dine In, etc offered its customers with great value solutions for special occasions. M&SÃ¢â¬â¢ food division has been performing well in a ver y competitive market and against tough competitors. By launching innovative products and with an expanded food offering, the company has been able to attract the customers in a highly competitive market. Strong market position in the clothing segment M&S has a strong market position in the clothing segment.With more than one in 10 clothing items bought from M&S, the company ranks amongst the three largest clothing retailers in the UK. According to a repor t released by Verdict (Datamonitor's retail arm) in May 2012, M is known for its product quality. The company was ranked first with a score of 49 for its product quality above the market average of 23. According to another repor t released by Verdict in April 2012, M enjoys highest conversion rate of 50. 7% and is very successful in conver ting visitors to loyal main users through its varied product offer, in-store service and garment quality.This indicates that M is a trustwor thy brand, which all main users would return to knowing that the quality, fit, and ser vice are reliable and consistent. The retailer has recognized that its core market of predominantly mature customers has been especially hard hit by rising core costs of living, falling interest on savings and worse prospects for pensions, and in reaction has lowered its entr y prices to compete more effectively with high street/value operators and supermarkets, helping to maintain the loyalty of its main users and prevent them from shopping elsewhere.Verdict, in its repor t in March 2012, ranked, M seventh in the global depar tment store market with a share of 3. 2%. This market leadership enabled M to excel throughout the economic downturn, while other mid-market retailers are pressured from the ever expanding value players. Leading market position indicates access to a large customer base and also popularity of M' offering in the clothing segment. Going forward, this market position would enable the company to drive revenues as consumer spending recovers.Geographical expansion to increase the addressable market and reduce vulnerability to mature UK market With a por tfolio of over 361 owned and franchised stores in 42 territories M&S continues to grow i ts international business. This mix of ownership models and countries enabled the company to perform well in FY2011, even when individual markets were weak. Fur ther, during FY2011, the company entered the Egyptian market with a 28,000 square feet store in the Dandy Mega Mall in Cairo. M&S' international business grew by 4% in FY2011 despite tough economic situation.As an established retailer in a mature market, it is going to be hard for M to continually deliver significant increases in UK sales. However, in the long run, its international business offers an oppor tunity for high growth. By generating much higher volumes, it can deliver margin benefits with suppliers. With production costs rising, this will be an advantage in the UK. International expansion will enable the company to access multiple sales points for most of the product ranges. This is especially relevant for clothing and homewares segments.Also, through expansion in the international markets M can reduce Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 19 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis vulnerability to mature UK market. The company can also par ticipate effectively in some of highest growing markets such as China and India. All these factors would enable the company to reduce the overall business risk and facilitate increased revenues. M etched a highly effective CSR strategy M has to its credit an effective corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy.CSR has been gaining prominence not just among the stake holders and governments but the consumers as well. The company has the highest propor tion of consumers believing it to be a responsible retailer and this can largely be attributed to the success of its Plan A, a ? 200 million (approximately $320. 3 million) 100-point plan launched in 2007 with five areas of focus: climate change, fair par tnership, health, sustainable raw materials, and waste. In FY2011, the company included two more areas in its Plan A: involving customers, and making Plan A how we do business.In the last few years, initiatives launched under the Plan A banner include launching the company's first eco-store, encouraging suppliers to set-up eco-factories, removing hydrogenated fats from its ready meals, increasing the propor tion of organic food, reducing the salt content of its produce, cer tifying a larger percentage of its fish as originating from sustainable populations, and beginning to sell recycling and composting bins. It is the high profile presence of Plan A in adver tising campaigns, product labeling and store signage that gives M&S one of the best consumer perceptions of a retailer for social responsibility.The campaign works not just as a direct to consumer channel, but also because of the positive coverage it creates. Perhaps more impor tantly, it has publicized all of these initiatives extensively. In 2008, M&S launched a TV adver tising campaign focusing on its ethical, environmental and health-conscious credentials, hi ghlighting that it only uses free range eggs and that its products are now free from ar tificial colors and flavorings. Other, more innovative, ideas have included a joint venture with Oxfam to promote the recycling of old clothes.In addition, more controversially, the retailer introduced a 5p charge for carrier bags at all of its food depar tments in 2008. Though many consumers resented this charge, it has undoubtedly boosted M&S' reputation as an ethical retailer. Overall, sculpting its CSR strategy into such a high publicity campaign, divided into such clear action points and highly visible benefits, has seen the company move to the forefront of responsible retailing. In FY2011, the company launched Indigo Green, its first range of clothing made using more sustainable fabrics.In April 2012, the company announced to accept secondhand clothes at all the UK outlets except Simply Food stores, to recycle them into other fabrics or to reuse them in order to cut waste. Plan A has seen C SR become core to M' principles in the eyes of the consumer and it has reaped the benefits of this, gaining shoppers as a result and repor tedly saving more than ? 70 million (approximately $108. 9 million) in efficiencies gained in FY2011 compared with ? 50 million (approximately $77. 8 million) in FY2010.In addition, M&S improved energy efficiency in its stores by 23% and warehouses by 24% in FY2011 compared to FY2007. It also improved the fuel efficiency of its deliver y fleets by 20% and total carbon emissions have been reduced by 13%. The company now recycles 94% of all the waste it generates from its stores, offices and warehouses. The total waste is down by more than a third. M&S also met its sustainable standards by sourcing 90% of wild fish in FY2011 (62% in FY2010) and 76% of wood in FY2011 (72% in FY2010). Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 20 Marks and Spencer Group plcSWOT Analysis By actively promoting a product's greener attributes (for example fewer, mo re recognizable and natural ingredients), retailers such as M have positioned products as improving one's personal environment while benefiting the global environment too. Many of their successes have come from emphasizing the former rather than the latter, especially as consumers often associate ethics with a sense of wellbeing. In terms of the issues that concern consumers, the sustainability of natural resources is a major fear, as are climate change and the fairness of sourcing arrangements.Consumers are also attracted to products with health benefits and there is a clear trend that consumers can be persuaded to par t with more money in return for products with a positive impact, not just to them personally, but also to wider society. Indeed, differentiating between products becomes harder and harder to achieve, Verdict expects consumers to turn to auxiliary considerations such as ethicality and sustainability to guide their choices. Consumers are no longer purely satisfied with how a product looks and functions; they want assurances over aspects such as nvironmental impact, hygiene, safety, and fairness. In light of the above mentioned trends where the customer choices are increasingly guided by the sustainability issues, M&S will benefit due to its reputation of being a responsible retailer. Weaknesses M&S legacy stores and systems are a competitive disadvantage M&S suffers some competitive disadvantages compared to Tesco, which has been able to drive earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) growth even in the mature UK market. Tesco benefits from supplier power and state-of-the-ar t IT, supply chain and systems compared with M&S legacy systems.The supermarket retailer has been able to break up the demand cur ve with metro, express and big box store formats out of town and on the high street. Moreover, Tesco stores have been carefully designed with consistent store layouts in order to facilitate store navigation. Extra back room store space has also been allocated to allow for smooth execution of its picking and distribution model. Tesco sells both own label and branded goods (food and non-food) in a bid to drive up footfall and sales conversion. M&S legacy stores are inconsistent in terms of layout.Store size tends to dictate product availability, while a lack of back room store space does not facilitate the same style supermarket pick and delivery model. The legacy systems and stores of M&S are constraining effective servicing of customer demands on a consistent basis. This is placing the company at a clear competitive disadvantage compared to a formidable opponent, Tesco. Declining general merchandise division sales due to inadequate stocking The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s general merchandise division sales declined in recent times, M&SÃ¢â¬â¢ general merchandise division sales decreased by 2. % in the four th quar ter of FY2012 ended March 2012. This was mainly due to shor tage of stock in its stores, Due to this, the company was also no t able to meet customer demand for 300,000 knitwear garments under the M&S Woman label. It only sold Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 21 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis 100,000 knitwear garments during this period. Fur ther, in times of high demand, inadequate stock could hamper the sales of the division and result in loss of sales to competitors.This not only affects the revenues of the company but could also result in shift of customers to its competitors. Opportunities Online channel continues to boom and will enable M&S to boost revenues Online retail sales in the UK have grown significantly over a period of time. According to Office for National Statistics, non-seasonally adjusted average weekly value for internet retail sales in the UK was ? 414 million (approximately $644. 3 million) in Februar y 2010, this increased to ? 573. 6 million (approximately $892. 7 million) in February 2012, representing an increase of 18%.Internet sales accounted for only 8% of the total retail sales (excluding fuel) in Februar y 2010. This figure increased to 10. 7% in February 2012. The growing desire for convenience is seeing shoppers buy more online, especially in the category of food and grocery. Consumers have also become savvier, using the internet more to get the best deal they can. Voucher codes, and cashback sites have been instrumental in this. Additionally, improved deliver y and fulfillment options have been encouraging consumers to shop more online.The company operates in the internet channel through M&S Direct where the products are offered through website and newly launched Ã¢â¬ËShop Your Way' facility, a new ordering service that has been rolled-out in 444 stores (including 151 in Simply Foods stores) during FY2011, allowing customers to place orders either in stores, online or over the phone, for deliver y to either a nominated address or free of charge to their nearest store. M&S DirectÃ¢â¬â¢s sales increased from ? 413 millio n (approximately $642. 8 million) in FY2010 to ? 543 million (approximately $845. million) in FY2011, an increase of 31. 5%. Fur ther, in the first half of FY2012, M&S DirectÃ¢â¬â¢s sales increased by 11. 7% with more than three million visitors per week. Thus, by leveraging its online presence, M&S can cater to the requirements of a growing number of customers who are looking for convenience and better deals over the internet. Focus on China and India can lead to expansion in two of the fastest growing markets China and India are two economies which are recording highest growth rates which, in turn, are expected to aid the retail market growth in these two countries.Asia's retail sales are estimated to increase with China driving the growth. According to the preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product (GDP) of China was CNY47,156. 4 billion ($7,285. 7 billion) in 2011, a year-on-year increase of 9. 2% at comparable prices. The fast pace economic development in China couple d with the rise of the middle class income group and their increasing disposable income have fur ther pushed up the demand for several consumer goods. According to National Bureau of Statistics of China, the total retail sales reached CNY18,391. 9 billion (approximately $2,841. billion) in 2011, representing a year-on-year nominal growth rate of 17. 1%. Fur ther, according to industr y estimates, the countr y's total retail sales are expected to increase from approximately CNY20 trillion ($3 trillion) in 2012 to approximately CNY26 trillion ($4 trillion) in 2016, representing an increase of about 30%. Strong Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 22 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis underlying economic trends, population growth and the increasing wealth of individuals are key factors that contribute to the retail market expansion in China.The retail industry in India is large owing to a large population and is set to grow as several factors contribute. According to the industry sources, the retail sales in India are forecast to grow from around $411 billion in 2011 to $804 billion by 2015. The key factors behind the forecast growth include strong underlying economic growth, population expansion, increasing wealth of individuals and the rapid construction of organized retail infrastructure. Also, as middle and upper class consumer base expands, there will also be oppor tunities in India's second and third-tier cities.The greater availability of personal credit and a growing vehicle population are to improve mobility which will also contribute to a trend towards retail sales growth. M is strengthening presence in India and China as par t of its geographic expansion and for some time to come, these countries would be the key contributors to the company's international expansion strategies. The company in with par tnership with Reliance Retail, an established retailer in India, can tap into this lucrative market while expansion in China also cont inues. Indian and Chinese markets would provide a huge potential revenue base for M&S.Threats Surge in shoplifting losses costs the retailers and customers The UK retailers are exposed to increased costs of shoplifting. Shoplifting has assumed massive propor tions in recent times. According to industry estimates, retail crime costed UK stores ? 1. 4 billion ($2. 2 billion) in 2011. There are about two million thefts per year, which concludes to an average of more than one per minute. According to another industr y repor t, the thefts across the UK stores increased from ? 4. 2 million ($6. 5 million) in 2009 to ? 5. 1 million ($7. 9 million) in 2011, an increase of 20%.Long-term trends also show the figure is likely to continue rising. As a result, retailers have been increasing their surveillance spend. This is increasing the costs for retailers as well as for the end consumers. The shoplifting losses are adding to the costs for the retailers and the customers have also been bearing the brunt. The surge in shoplifting could negatively impact the cost structure for M&S as well. Weak consumer spending in the UK The UK market is suffering from weak consumer spending. The European debt crisis added more downward pressure to the growth prospects of the UK.According to Eurostat, the UK economy grew by 0. 7% in 2011 and is expected to grow by 0. 5% in 2012. In addition, the UK has witnessed high unemployment rate. According to the Office of National Statistics, the unemployment rate for the three months period November 2011 to January 2012 was 8. 4% with 2. 67 million unemployed people in the UK. Increasing unemployment rate is expected to fur ther put pressure on the economy of the UK. High inflation, led by the increase in VAT to 20% and public spending cuts reduced disposable Marks and Spencer Group plc MarketLine Page 23 Marks and Spencer Group plc SWOT Analysis income, leading to a fall in consumer spending on discretionary items. Consumers have been cautious wi th their spending especially due to soaring petrol prices, tax increases and uncer tainty over jobs. The UK is the key market for M&S. In FY2011, the UK accounted for 89. 7% of M&S' total revenues. Thus, the sluggish consumer spending and high unemployment rate in the UK could affect most of the non-food retailers and lead to reduced sales volume or shrinking profit margins. Rising labor cost in the UKLabor costs are rising in the UK. In recent times, tight labor markets, increased over time, government mandated increases in minimum wages and a higher propor tion of full-time employees are resulting in an increase in labor costs, which could materially impact the company's results of operation. The National Minimum Wage (NMW) Regulations came into force in 1999 and since then the NMW rates have been increased annually. The national minimum wage increased from ? 5. 93 per hour ($9. 23 per hour) in October 2010 to ? 6. 08 per hour ($9. 46 per hour) in October 2011.Fur ther, the nation al minimum wage is expected to increase to ? 6. 19 per hour (9. 63 per hour) from October 2012. In FY2011, M&S employed 78,169 people. Increasing labor costs can adversely affect the company's operating costs as its wage bills would escalate. This, in turn, could impact its margins adversely. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 24 Marks and Spencer Group plc Top Competitors TOP COMPETITORS The following companies are the major competitors of Marks and Spencer Group plc ASDA Group Limited Debenhams plc H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB J Sainsbury plcNEXT plc Selfridges plc Tesco PLC Gap, Inc. , The French Connection Group Plc House of Fraser Group Plc John Lewis Par tnership plc Arcadia Group Limited Home Retail Group Plc Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 25 Marks and Spencer Group plc Company View COMPANY VIEW A statement by Rober t Swannell, the Chairman of the Board at Marks and Spencer Group, is given below. The statement has been taken from the companyÃ¢â¬â ¢s Annual Repor t for FY2011. I feel ver y privileged to be Chairman of this unique company and at such an exciting time in our evolution.Since joining Marks & Spencer in October and assuming the role of Chairman in Januar y, I have spent much of my time getting to know the business better Ã¢â¬â meeting our employees, shareholders, customers and suppliers. I first became deeply involved with M during the unsolicited takeover attempt in 2004, when I led the advisory team that helped put the M case to its shareholders. It was then I learned first hand about this unique company: about the extraordinarily strong relationship it has with its many stakeholders and about its very special ethos.This ethos is a reflection of the high standards our customers expect from M Ã¢â¬â trusting us not only to deliver great value, great quality products but also to do the right thing Ã¢â¬â socially, environmentally and ethically. We know that putting Plan A at the hear t of how we do busines s is not just the right thing to do; it is also fundamental to our long-term success. Performance In a challenging marketplace M has continued to grow, with underlying profits up 12. 9% on the year.We delivered this by staying true to our heritage of quality and innovation, reminding our customers what makes M special. This year Marc Bolland set out a clear medium-term plan for the business, after extensive discussions with colleagues and us, the Board. This is covered in detail in MarcÃ¢â¬â¢s review. From day one, I have been struck by the passion and commitment of our people. I am delighted that this year we are paying a bonus to all employees to thank them for their energy and enthusiasm in what has been a difficult trading environment. DividendWe are committed to delivering consistent returns for our shareholders. To this end we have adopted a progressive dividend policy, with dividends broadly covered twice by earnings. We intend to pay a final dividend of 10. 8p per share (l ast year 9. 5p) in respect of the 2010/11 financial year. Governance Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 26 Marks and Spencer Group plc Company View This year we returned to the traditional governance structure of a separate Chairman and Chief Executive, providing clarity between Marc Bolland and me, with regard to our respective roles.Put simply, I run the Board and Marc runs the business. The Board has a wide range of responsibilities. There are three that I think are par ticularly impor tant for the success of the business: first, to debate and agree our strategy and hold the executive team accountable for its execution; second, to ensure that we have the most talented team to execute this strategy and that we plan effectively for succession; and third, to set the tone for governance, which is par ticularly impor tant at M where Ã¢â¬Ëdoing the right thingÃ¢â¬â¢ is an integral par t of our ethos. My ob is to ensure the Board has the right mix of skills and talents and to ensure that it works effectively as a team towards shared goals with the right mix of enquir y and suppor t of the executive directors from the non-executive directors. During the year we commissioned a formal Board evaluation from an independent consultant, the findings of which are outlined in the Governance section. This process highlighted the real enthusiasm of the directors in suppor ting a shared ambition: to guide M to the ver y best future. We know that you expect high standards from M; itÃ¢â¬â¢s our responsibility to learn how we can improve.This review was an impor tant par t of that journey. As stated in our 2009/10 Annual Repor t, we reviewed the senior remuneration structure this year. Following extensive shareholder consultation, we believe we now have a framework that is both relevant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s M and fully aligned with our strategy. The Board Over the last year the Board has been strengthened by a series of executive appointments. In May 2010 Marc B olland joined the business as Chief Executive, assuming the day-to-day running of the business from Sir Stuar t Rose in July.In October Alan Stewar t joined as Chief Finance Officer and in February we announced the appointment of Laura Wade-Gery as Executive Director, Multi-channel E-commerce; she will join the Board in July. Whilst the Board features some new faces, these changes have taken place around a core of executive and non-executive directors that has remained stable over recent years. I would like to pay par ticular tribute to Sir Stuar t Rose. When he became Chief Executive in 2004, M was at a low ebb.He restored confidence in M, re-established its values and built a strong business. The solid platform from which Marc is now implementing his plan is a credit to Stuar tÃ¢â¬â¢s energy and tireless commitment to M over the last seven years. The smooth management transition Ã¢â¬â the meticulous handover to me and the suppor t of Marc Ã¢â¬â is also a credit to Stuar t. In that connection, I would also like to thank Sir David Michels, and the Nominations & Governance Committee he led, for managing a change of leadership over the past year that was accomplished quietly and effectively.David has decided to step down from the Board at the end of his second term in February 2012, but I am delighted that he will continue his role as Deputy Chairman until then. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLine Page 27 Marks and Spencer Group plc Company View I must also thank Louise Patten for the significant contribution she has made over the last five years, playing an impor tant role in each of our Board Committees. As Louise reaches the end of her second three year term on the Board, she has decided not to seek re-election at the upcoming AGM. Looking aheadOur priorities for the year ahead are clear. We have a plan and it is now our collective job to make it happen. The Board will concentrate on delivering exemplary governance at the highest level to enab le our executive team to drive this strategy forward. The economy still gives us reason to be cautious. Yet in difficult times, our core values of Quality, Value, Ser vice, Innovation and Trust matter more than ever to M customers. These values remain at the hear t of our strategy and I therefore look forward to the future with confidence. Marks and Spencer Group plc Ã © MarketLinePage 28 Marks and Spencer Group plc Locations and Subsidiaries LOCATIONS AND SUBSIDIARIES Head Office Marks and Spencer Group plc Waterside House 35 Nor th Wharf Road London W2 1NW GBR P:44 20 7935 4422 http://www. marksandspencer. com Other Locations and Subsidiaries Marks and Spencer International Holdings Limited Great Britain GBR Marks and Spencer (Nederland) BV NLD Marks and Spencer (Ireland) Limited IRL Marks and Spencer (Asia Pacific) Limited HKG Marks and Spencer Simply Foods Limited Great Britain GBR Marks and Spencer Marinopoulos Greece SA GRC Marks and Spencer SCM Limited
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Marriage and Relationships in William Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew Getting married in modern times is not something which is viewed as necessary. There are many couples that are together, but do not want to marry, because they do not feel they have to. Couples that do, can have a marriage almost anywhere they choose. Couples can marry in houses, shopping centres and even petrol stations. Anywhere you can get a marriage licence and a vicar, is seen as a place fit to hold a wedding these days. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Taming of the ShrewÃ¢â¬ however, marriage was seen as something of a necessity. It was a very important stage in life, but a stage in which love was not seen as a key or important ingredient.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They had no way of expressing their feelings; Ã¢â¬Å"Thus I have politically begun my reign.Ã¢â¬ Women like Katherina would not see their way for another 100 years. In this way Shakespeare shows exactly how menÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes to these kinds of women made their lives considerably hard and miserable. When Shakespeare was in his twenties, he had a relationship with a woman who was a lot older than he was, he ended up getting her pregnant. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time, if you got a woman pregnant then you almost always had to marry them. There were no ways of contraception and therefore no way of stopping the birth. Shakespeare was forced into a Ã¢â¬Å"ShotgunÃ¢â¬ wedding, which was most definitely not based on love. This may have had an influence on the way that he wrote some of his plays, for instance, Ã¢â¬Å"The Taming of the ShrewÃ¢â¬ . In Ã¢â¬Å"The Taming of the ShrewÃ¢â¬ it is quite obvious that love is seen as in no way important when people are to be married. Perhaps some of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s own experiences, have been transferred into the characters. In Elizabethan England, men were dominant, they would go out to work and get the respect in the community. Women, however, were expected to wait on the men hand and foot, they would have to make dinner, cook, clean, do whatever their husband wished. If they did not adhere to these rules, or if they said something that made them look more intelligent than men did, thenShow MoreRelated Essay on Contrasting Couples in The Taming of the Shrew820 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesContrasting Couples in The Taming of the Shrew Ã Ã Ã William Shakespeares comedy, The Taming of the Shrew illistrates the difficulty of trying to tame a headstrong, stubborn, and a high-spirited woman so that she will make a docile wife. The one attempting to tame Kate, the shrew, is Petruchio. They contend with each other with tremendous vitality and have a forced relationship. In contrast, there is another romantically linked couple who seemingly possess an ideal relationship. These young loversRead MoreEssay on The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Taming of the Shrew, written by William Shakespeare, is historical proof that flirting and temptation, relating to the opposite sex, has been around since the earliest of times. Because males and females continue to interact, the complications in this play remain as relevant and humorous today as they did to Elizabethan audiences. This is a very fun play, full of comedy and sexual remarks. Its lasting impression imprints itself into the minds of its readers, for it is an unforgettableRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic comedy, The Taming of1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages William Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic comedy, The Taming of the Shrew, is an embodiment of the context in which the text was shaped, the Renaissance. The Renaissance period was a time of progression, primarily in the areas of art, science, humanism, religion and self-awareness. The Renaissance focused on taking elements of the past including religion, art and science and adapting them to make them better. Humanists advocated for the freedom of the individualsRead More Taming of the Shrew: Male Domination Essay1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTaming of the Shrew: Male Domination The Taming of the Shrew, by William Shakespeare, deals with marriage. The ideas explored are primarily shown through the characters of Petruchio and Katharina. We are introduced to the trials and tribulations which present themselves in their everyday lives. The characters bring up a traditional concept of male domination. Through the play we see the need for domination through Petruchio, and the methods he uses to dominate. While these ideas of male dominationRead MoreGender Roles During Elizabethan Society1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ ; Petit, Ã¢â¬Å"A Look at Male Gender Roles in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Renaissance.).. The men could vote and all actors on stage were men. In general, men had every advantage in that time period (Ram, Pham, Sok, Hamsafar, and Wilhemsen, Ã¢â¬Å"Gender Roles in Elizabethan Society.Ã¢â¬ ; Petit, Ã¢â¬Å"A Look at Male Gender Roles in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Renaissance.). During the Elizabethan age, marriages were generally viewed as a business relationship than anything else (Folger, 5). Marriages were arranged only to increase the wealthRead MoreEssay about Taming of the Shrew: Movie vs. Play807 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages William Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew is an interesting story that demonstrates the patriarchal ideas of how a marriage is suppose to be according to society, what is acceptable of a womans role in a relationship. Its a story that has many things to show for its been remade, and remade, even slightly altered to better relate to the teenage audience. The story is about two sisters Katherine and Bianca. Bianca has a suitor who would like to marry her, Lucentio, but the onlyRead MoreTaming Of The Shrew By William Shakespeare And 10 Things I Hate About You By Gil Junger1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintertextual relationship between Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare and 10 Things I Hate About You by Gil Junger, has greatly enhanced and enriched my understanding of love and gender and itÃ¢â¬â¢s varying ideals throughout the centuries. Taming of the Shrew depicts the quintessential features of a 16th century marriage, whilst 10 Things I Hate About You, its 21st century counterpart, has been rebooted to match the modern cultural expectations and ideals of love, relationships and marriage. The textsRead MoreTaming Of The Shrew Analysis741 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWilliam Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew is a play that shows how men are misogynistic towards women and how marriage is brought out to be in many relationships. Mar riage is a significant element in the lives of the characters in The Taming of the Shrew because arranged marriages, the objectification of women and the buying of a wife create a misogynistic treatment of women in the play. This illustrates unfair and unjust behaviour towards women. All the marriages in this play were arrangedRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Taming Of The Shrew And Twelfth Night 702 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAlyssa Nowak 6 October 2016 Prof. Ron Dye FYS: Shakespeare Comedies Midterm Disguise and Trickery One of the many factors that William Shakespeare implements throughout all of his comedic plays is the element of disguise and trickery. This element is shown through his works of As You Like It, Taming of the Shrew, and Twelfth Night. The primary purpose for using disguise and trickery is for deceit. The deception involved with changing charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ identities is used for momentary gain. In theRead MoreThe Taming Of The Shrew By William Shakespeare1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare will appeal to Kalidasa because most of his plays are based on Puranas and this play can be used to show the values of Hindu Puranas and respect toward the deities. Hindu Puranas, ancient Indian literature about myths and legends, like Mahabharata teach the society about deed, religion, respect, knowledge, and royalty. Kalidasa can use ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play to reteach MahabharataÃ¢â¬â¢s values, since the play presents themes of wealth, gender role, re ligious
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Hispanic immigration to the United States stems primarily from uniquely developed push-pull migration mechanisms in which Ã¢â¬Å"interplay of national, regional, and global economic developments, the history of U.S. military and foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere, the checkered history of international border enforcement and interdiction efforts, and, not least, the aspirations of Latin American migrants and potential migrants themselvesÃ¢â¬ (Gutierrez). In other words, migration from Latin American to the United States shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been consistent, however, there are several factors that triggered massive waves of such. The first major wave of Hispanic migration to the United States was in 1848, which was a result from the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The newly acquired lands of the United States hosted a population of about 75,000-100,000 and the U.S. Government offered blanket naturalization to the former Mexican Citizens. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexican immigration to the U.S. Ã¢â¬Å"average[d] 3,000-5,000Ã¢â¬ persons per decade, with the exception of the California Gold Rush, where around 10,000 Mexican miners migrated to California, all totaling to about 100,000 Mexicans in the U.S. by the end of the 1900 (Gutierrez). However, Ã¢â¬Å"historical migration statistics for this period are inaccurate because of inconsistent enumeration techniques, changing methods of ethnic and racial classification in the U.S., and the constant movement of uncounted thousands ofShow MoreRelatedImmigration Policy Of The United States And Its Effects On Hispanic Immigrants1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pa gesMHS_ForeignLanguageWritingAssignment Tanya Meinecke-Smith SPAN_2311_MHS 06 December 2014 Immigration Policy in the United States and its Effects on Hispanic Immigrants Whether with a cold shoulder welcome or a open arm embrace, the United States has constantly received a range of global immigrants, over half whom originate from Latin America (migrationpolicy.org). Largely driven by the prospect of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream,Ã¢â¬ the Latino immigration movement began in the 1840s and has fluctuated with new policies, includingRead MoreAmerican Culture And Its Impact On American Society1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave Hispanics began to enter American Society and how have they assimilated or integrated to become part of it? Hispanics are a minority group who have overcome many struggles and stereotypes throughout history. It is important to know how it all started and how they managed to become such a huge part of todays society.Ã Hispanics Americans constitute more than 15% of the U.S population, and the number is still growing. It is the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s largest ethnic minority group. When Hispanics enterRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Latin American Immigration on America1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Immigration is the process of entry of individuals into a new country (23). Throughout past centuries, immigration has been a means of discovery and exploration of new lands. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, immigration to the United States is an avenue for individuals who wish to start new lives and take advantage of the capitalistic, entrepreneurial system. People from many countries have migrated into the United States. Most recently, the migrants have come from Central and South AmericanRead MoreAnd Amerindian Stock885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand Amerindian stockÃ¢â¬ (Gutierrez 47). According to Ruben Rumbaut 2009 publication, Pigments of Our Imagination: The Racialization of the Hispanic-Latino Category, Ã¢â¬Å"Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Salvadorans, Colombians, and the many other nationalities from Latin America and even Spain itself - we re not Ã¢â¬ËHispanicsÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËLatinosÃ¢â¬â¢ in their countries of originÃ¢â¬ stressing not only the wide range of country of origin, but also the racial conceptions that those immigrants from those countries may haveRead MoreImmigration Laws : Arizona Anti Immigration Law1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSB 1070: Arizona Anti-Immigration Law Introduction and Summary SB 1070 Anti-Immigration Law was passed by Arizona legislators and signed by former Arizona Governor Jan Brewer in early 2009 when another former Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano became Secretary of Homeland Security under President Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s administration (Morse, 2011). After Jan Brewer took office, she was looking for ways to strengthen the anti-immigration laws. Former Arizona State Senator Russell Pearce was attempting to findRead MoreRacial Discrimination and Hispanics in the United States1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscrimination among Hispanics in the United States is on the rise along with stricter immigration laws, inadequate education for ESL classes, as well as they are prey to healthcare disparities. Data shows that many states in the United States are implementing tougher immigration laws for their individual states. Also, due to education cuts and kick-backs, English as a second language classes are becoming fewer in many school districts. Finally, health c are disparities among Hispanics are on the riseRead MoreLatino Americans And Hispanic Americans1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHispanic Americans are the largest minority group in the United States. They make up approximately 16 percent of the country s population. They are considered both an ethnic and a racial minority group. Their language, a cultural characteristic, identifies them as an ethnic minority group. Their physical appearance identifies Hispanic-Americans as a racial minority group (Healy 2012). The majority of the Hispanic American population is located in the southwest part of the country. The three largestRead MoreImmigrants From Latin America s Annexation Of Mexico Essay1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Historically, Latinos have struggled against ethnic labeling, immigration as well challenges surrounding education. This can traced back to mid-19th century when according to Harvest of Empire AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation of Mexico which gave the United States Texas, California, and the southwest. Ã¢â¬Å"MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s territory was cut by half and its mineral resources by three-quarters. These appalling numbers help explain so much. In fact, you can arguably lay MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s poverty and loss through emigration rightRead MoreImmigration Of Hispanics And Hispanics882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshighlight immigration of Hispanics and Latinos, since it is a relatively young (compared to the national average), diverse population with many subgroups, with complicated socioeconomic factors, and shares a troubled history with the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). The largest group of immigrants that came from Mexico has settled in Arizona, California, Texas and New Mexico. These areas of the United States also happen to share a significant historical grievance with the United States. The citiesRead MoreIllegal Immigration in America Essay857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIllegal immigration at the U.S. - Mexico border is a growing problem, and the death toll is rising as more people are attempting to illegally enter the United States. As a result of an increasing number of people trying to enter into the United States illegally, the border is now being guarded by an increasing number of border patrol officers. The United States implemented different laws and operations to prevent more illegal immigration from Mexico into the United States. The Ã¢â¬ËOperation GatekeeperÃ¢â¬â¢